It’s here! Saving Africa from Lies that Kill – new book just released

Now you can help end the unnecessary misery in Africa and other developing countries. No, not just by throwing money at the problem; rather, you can help advocate to end the stagnation caused by outdated wrong attitudes and practices. Africa needs Education, Employment, Investment, Infrastructure and Disease Control to bring them into the 21st century. Africa can grow new burgeoning markets, a source of new goods, new business opportunities and a new workforce for existing businesses, which can break the hold of Chinese goods and services. Investment, rather than foreign aid to corrupt governments is the key, as well as ending counterproductive practices by international organizations.

From the back cover:   How Myths about the Environment and overpopulation are destroying third world countries

In Saving Africa From Lies That Kill, Kay Kiser exposes the long-standing crimes committed against developing nations by the United Nations, World Bank, USAID and Planned Parenthood. Under their guise of “aid,” these organizations mire the underprivileged in isolation, poverty, sickness, and ignorance. In her book, Kiser argues:

  • Poverty, not overpopulation, causes environmental damage. Higher standards of living and lower infant mortality can improve the environment and stabilize the population.
  • Developing nations need access to reliable electricity in order to end energy poverty. This will, in turn, provide clean water, develop transportation, and power hospitals, homes and industrial investment.
  • Africans aren’t lazy; they’re weakened from malaria, parasites and dysentery. They need insect and disease control for a healthy workforce.
  • The Green Revolution and modern agriculture can feed everyone and end deforestation.

Fortunately, you can do something about the problem–and Kiser shows you how.

Available online and in book stores everywhere. In print and eBook through Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Books a Million. 

After reading the book, please remember to review it online; share it with a friend and do your part to end bad practices. Visit my blog for more information and sign up for email updates at https://savingafricafromliesthatkill.com/

Saving Africa from Lies that Kill – Amazon Kindle preview now available

Preview is now available for my new book Saving Africa from Lies that Kill: How Myths about the Environment and Overpopulation are Destroying Third World Countries

You can click on the link below or paste in into your browser to see a Kindle preview of the new book. If you have an Amazon online account, you can log in to see more content through chaper 1.

Short link to Amazon preview  http://a.co/fP8Nsky

The book will be released November 13, 2018. You can pre-order now or download the Kindle version today to start reading.

The book not only outlines and discusses the problems , it shows you ways you can help to end the abuses and bring these countries out of poverty, disease and ignorance, and into the 21st century. Poverty, not overpopulation, causes environmental damage, keeps birthrates and disease high, keeps lifespans short and retards development of economies.  Cultural preservation is possible without the accompanying disease, ignorance and hunger.

Developing Countries need Clean Water and Sanitation Now – 2

Clean Water for Developing Countries – Part 2.

In part 1 we discussed how to provide clean water, how to filter and purify water and the need to educate the people about microscopic sources of disease. Continuing this theme of improving health through simple life style changes, it is important to eliminate open defecation, use of raw sewage on crops and cross contamination of drinking water with biological contaminants.  Wells that are covered against contamination and accessed by hand pump are important, but so is sanitation and hygiene.

Families should be taught to

  • filter and boil drinking water, especially for their infants and young children;
  • use soap and water to bathe children regularly and wash their clothes;
  • insist on regular hand washing with soap and water;
  • emphasize no more open defecation in fields or streams;
  • build and maintain proper toilets
  • dispose of human and animal wastes away from streams, preferably by burning or burying garbage and trash;
  • make soap using wood ashes and animal fat in the time-honored saponification process (see below).
Soap and Water Washing
  • Soap and water handwashing, bathing and laundry are important to prevent disease. Soap not only removes visible dirt, but it is an excellent disinfectant. Soap and water washing of vegetables can disinfect them before consumption, making the food supply safer even in areas where raw feces are used on crops.
  • Soap can be bought if funds are available, or can be easily made by villagers from readily available materials. (see example below)
  • Excess handmade soap can be sold or traded for other goods or saved for later use.

Extracting Lye for Soap Making from Wood Ashes[1]
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to Make Soap from Ashes and Fat
  1. Collect fine wood ashes in a wood or plastic container with small holes at the bottom and gravel and straw to retain the ashes. Mount on supports leaving room for a collection container. (Hard wood ashes work best. Avoid evergreen tree wood.)
  2. Collect lye from the ashes using a water slow leaching method (rain water works best).
  3. Collect fats or oils from cooking (any will do).
  4. Heat the lye solution and separately heat the fats/oil in half-filled pots.
  5. Add the hot oils to the liquid lye solution while stirring to mix.
  6. Since the lye concentration will be uncertain, exact measurements are not possible. Start with a one-to-one ratio of fats to lye solution and add more fats as needed until all of the lye is reacted.
  7. Stir constantly for at least 30 minutes or until the mixture starts to solidify.
  8. Pour into greased molds and let set until the next day.
  9. Cut into conveniently sized bars.

This can be a community project with contributors receiving a share of the product. It can also be the basis of a small business.

Cleaner Streams
  • Prevent human and animal waste from entering streams.
  • End the practice of open defecation.
  • Isolate animal pens away from streams by proper placement, preferably below the level of the stream or by low mud, brick or stone retaining walls around lots or at the stream.
  • Designate a garbage dump away from the stream, which can be regularly burned.
  • Collect animal wastes in a designated area so that they will be composted over time before use. “Green” manure can burn plants. Aging keeps this from happening. It also digests disease causing bacteria, viruses, worm eggs, etc. to make them safe.
Shoes to Protect from Parasites

Shoes for all, especially children, are needed to prevent parasitic worms from entering through their feet. With proper toilets and isolation of feces from streams or other water sources, the spread of parasitic worms can be reduced. However, tiny worm eggs drop to the ground from an infected person and can be picked up by bare feet. When wastes are applied to farm fields, bare feet can also pick them up there. In addition to ending application of raw sewage on fields, it is important to treat worm infections medically to end the cycle.

Sanitation and Hygiene

Toilets

Flush toilets with septic tanks are ideal. They can be either shared or installed in each home if pumped in water is available. If electricity is not available for pumping and purification, other immediate solutions must be put in place to end open defecation. Preferably, individual toilets for single families would further limit the spread of disease. Without pumped in water, flush toilets with septic tanks can be built and used by pouring water from streams for flushing. Water used in washing and cooking can be re-used for this purpose.

Pit toilets can be built for sharing with other villagers in order to end open defecation. Toilets need to have a means to exclude flies, which carry diseases, such as a seat cover, and a screened stack pipe above the roof to carry away odor and flammable gases. Pit toilets need to be built above grade so that surface runoff can’t enter. They need to be regularly treated with insecticide, lime, or ashes to reduce fly infestation. Several types include a simple pit, twin pit with movable structure, offset pit (septic) with pour flush basin, pit with baffle and access door that allows older accumulated waste to be removed and used on fields. Waste is safe to use on fields after one year.

Twin and Single pit toilets with ventilation[2]

Toilets can be built for squat or with an enclosed sitting platform. Both need seat covers to keep flies from entering and laying eggs. The twin pit toilet allows the filled pit to compost, dehydrate and digest pathogens while the second pit is filling. When the second pit is nearly filled, the first pit can be emptied and safely used as compost on gardens if the contents have aged at least one year. The first pit can then be re-used while the second one is composting. A single pit toilet will need a second pit to be dug when it is nearly filled and the contents needs to be buried with soil from the new pit or sealed for composting. Note that in areas where soil may collapse into the pit, walls of mud bricks can be built to retain the soil.

Pour flush toilet with water trap barrier to odors.[3]
This design can also be used with twin pits for easier composting. Water for flushing can be from any source including used wash water, aka greywater.

 

[1] Mother Earth News, “How to Make Hot-Process Soft Soap,” Dec 2016/Jan 2017.

[2] Practical Action, Improved Toilets at https://practicalaction.org/improved-toilets

[3] WHO Publication, Emergency Sanitation: Assessment and Programme Design

New book to be released November; preorder now; get Kindle eBook today.

SAVING AFRICA FROM LIES THAT KILL:

HOW MYTHS ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT AND OVERPOPULATION ARE DESTROYING THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES

New book to be released November 13, 2018; preorder on Amazon now; get Kindle eBook TODAY.  My new book reveals the abuses of developing countries by international organizations, based on the overpopulation myth and false assumptions about genetic inferiority and environmental damage.  Learn how you can help to end these practices and bring these cultures into the twenty-first century. Investment, Infrastructure, Education and Employment are the answers to building these economies, improving the lives of their peoples, stabilizing the population and protecting the environment.

New book to be released November 13, 2018

Back cover:  In Saving Africa From Lies That Kill, Kay Kiser exposes the long-standing crimes committed against developing nations by the United Nations, World Bank, USAID and Planned Parenthood. Under their guise of “aid,” these organizations mire the underprivileged in isolation, poverty, sickness and ignorance.

In her book, Kiser argues:

    • Poverty, not overpopulation, causes environmental damage.  Higher standards of living and lower infant mortality can improve the environment and stabilize the population.

    • Developing nations need access to reliable electricity in order to end energy poverty. This will, in turn, provide clean water, develop transportation, and power hospitals, homes and industrial investment.

    • Africans aren’t lazy; they’re weakened from malaria, parasites and dysentery. They need insect and disease control for a healthy workforce.

    • The Green Revolution and modern agriculture can feed everyone and end deforestation. 

available in bookstores and online, in paperback or e-book November 13, 2018. Preorder on Amazon now. GET Kindle E-book today.

Developing Countries Need Clean Water Now

Clean Water for Developing Countries – Part 1.

Clean Water, Hygiene Education and Sanitation Will Reduce High Infant Mortality in Poor Countries

Water-borne disease is the leading killer of children under five years of age in Africa and other developing countries. The World Health Organization estimates that 85 percent of diseases among infants and children under the age of five are water borne. Water-borne illness is the leading cause of death worldwide. WHO estimates that worldwide 3.4 million people die each year from preventable water-borne illnesses. That’s 9,300 per day! Most of them are infants, young children, pregnant women, the ill, infirm and elderly. Surface waters are usually contaminated with bacteria and parasites because it is a multipurpose source, including waste disposal. The result is high infant and childhood mortality from intestinal parasites and diarrhea.

Under 5 Mortality per Thousand, WHO 2008, African Nations vs Developed Nations

Comparison of under five mortality per 1,000 births in Africa (average 111/1000 or 11 percent; max 220/1000 for Angola) to that of developed countries on the same vertical scale. (Average 5/1000 or 0.5 percent; Max 11/1000 or 1.1 percent for Russian Federation) UNWHO 2010 Health Statistics

Many poor people in Africa and other developing countries lack a source of clean or purified water. Rivers and streams are used for drinking water, waste disposal, washing, and cooking. Sometimes water from streams must be carried for long distances, which is a time consuming and back breaking process. Dependence on contaminated surface water and a lack of proper toilets and waste disposal all result in cross contamination of their only drinking water source with human and animal feces, animal bodies, and other contaminating wastes. Many people without proper toilets defecate in the open, which spreads disease directly or through flies and other insects. The United Nations estimates 2.6 billion people globally have no access to clean water and toilets.

Raw human sewage and animal wastes as well as contaminated surface waters are applied to garden crops. Runoff from these fields in rainy seasons can further contaminate the streams. Applying human wastes to fields contaminates the soil so that diseases can be spread by the soil, insects, and the vegetables grown there. Without washing with soap and cooking vegetables, there is no barrier to ingestion of diseases and parasites. Even local health care facilities often lack purified water, proper toilets, and soap and water handwashing facilities. This is totally unacceptable in a world with both the knowledge and ability to clean up this mess.

So what can be done about this situation? Ideally, with electricity, water and waste treatment facilities can be built, and purified water can be piped into homes or at least into villages. Flush toilets are possible with piped in water, which is only possible with electric pumps. Septic systems could be used in lieu of waste treatment plants. However, because such systems will be implemented gradually to reach remote areas over a period of years, other means of stopping the cycle of disease must be started at once. There are some simple ways to end this tragic cycle of high infant and child mortality now. Most or all of these methods can be implemented by poor people themselves if they are first shown how to do it.

Hygiene Education

The most important aspect of this campaign is education. As teachers educate people about ending the cycle of needless water-borne diseases, they can train other trainers to spread the good news. The chain can be expanded through an “each one, teach one” approach. Posters and handouts can enhance the message that saving the lives of innocents only requires a few simple changes in daily life.

Without knowledge and an appreciation of microscopic bacteria, parasites, and worm eggs, people have no incentive to clean up old bad habits such as defecating in streams and fields and drinking unprocessed contaminated surface water. Without knowledge of these unseen microscopic monsters, there is no way to break the cycle of disease transmission. Once people are taught that there are microscopic sources of diseases, invisible to the naked eye, then remediation can be taught and adopted. It is also important that they understand that feces contamination is a major source of disease and that human and animal feces must be isolated from streams and other sources of drinking water. Families also need to understand that clear water is not clean water. Filtration through washable and reusable cloth bag filters helps to clear water but does little to remove pathogens. Slow filtration through sand will remove most pathogens and then boiling can insure purity for babies and young children.

Wells

Hand dug or drilled community wells, protected from contamination, are needed to provide a source of clean water. Ground water is usually much cleaner than surface water because it is filtered through soil and is less likely to have contaminants thrown into it. Wells need to be installed away from or above sources of animal wastes and toilets to avoid possible groundwater contamination. They need to have at least a raised wall and cover to keep surface run-off from entering

Hand pumped wells don’t need electricity. These can either have commercial manual pumps or primitive devices such as a simple bucket on a rope raised by a wench, or a shadoof, which is a bucket on a rope attached to a long counterweighted pole, or a sakieh, which consists of a series of pots attached to a continuous rope system to bring water to the surface. Sealed, covered wells with hand pumps are preferable because it is less likely that contamination can fall into the well or be transferred by exposed ropes.

Village Hand Pumped Clean Water Well; Source: UN Archive

In some areas where hand-dug shallow wells are unreliable, deep wells, drilled by machine can supply more people and provide more reliable clean water. Because this process is expensive and requires specialized machinery, charitable organizations or WHO loans can help to bring this about.

 

Low Sand Dams

In arid areas where streams dry up between rainy seasons, a low, sand dam can be built to retain rainwater runoff when the rains come. A low, stone or brick wall is constructed on bedrock across a narrow area of the dry river to catch and hold the water. The catchment behind the dam will fill with sand over time, but the sand will hold 25 to 45 percent water. This water can be accessed by digging holes and scooping out the water. In this case, the water will still be cloudy because it holds smaller suspended particles unless it is allowed to settle for a time.

How a Low Sand Dam Works; Source: Kenya Ministry of Water and Irrigation, “Practice Manual For Small Dams, Pans and Other Water Conservation Structures in Kenya” at http://www.smalldamsguidelines.water.go.ke.

The other way to access the water is to lay a slotted pipe in the bottom leading to a hand pump on the river bank or extended through the dam. In this case, the water is both cleaner and clearer. These sand dams provide water for agriculture as well as for home use. Because the water is stored in sand, there is less evaporation than from open ponds. An additional benefit is that horizontal seepage over time replenishes the underground water table.

African Countries with Low Sand Dams or with that Potential; Source: Wikipedia, Iangrahamneal 18 December 2009, Creative Commons

Other Sources of Water

  • Hydroelectric dams in areas where water is more abundant can be used to provide water for industry, agriculture and home use. (See chapter 12.)
  • Clean springs can be used with a pipe or covered trough to carry water from its source in pristine forested mountains to villages and homes. Treatment by slow sand filter can add confidence in purity.
Rain Water
  • Rain water can be collected from metal or tile roofs by gutters directed into rain barrels.
  • Rain barrels must be securely sealed or screened except for the gutter inlet to prevent mosquitos from laying eggs.
  • Cisterns are similar to rain barrel collection; they are composed of roof-like collection facilities that drain into a large protected collection tank.
  • Because rain water may pick up contamination from the roof, it is best to use a slow sand filter to purify it further.
  • First flush tipping gutter section may also eliminate leaves and debris before it can go into the collection container.
Dew or Fog

Dew is water that condenses on surfaces when the temperature falls to the dew point and atmospheric water vapor condenses on cool surfaces. Even in tropical or desert environments, dew often falls at night. Clear skies favor more dew; wind tends to reduce the amount of dew collected, so still air is best.

Fog is suspended water droplets that can cling to surfaces, much like dew. Dew and fog can be collected if nighttime temperatures reach the dew point. Arrays of cloth, screen, metal or plastic can be suspended off the ground so that condensation drains into a central container or trough for collection. Metal roofs with gutters can be used for both rain water and dew collection.

  • Individual dew collectors, such as metal strips suspended off the ground, can be set up at intervals in fields to help water crops
  • Large arrays of cloth or screen can capture fog in area where fog frequently occurs such as coastal regions. Fog fences have been installed successfully in places like Ethiopia, Chile and Morocco to collect water.
Cleaner Drinking Water

Slow sand filters are one of the easiest ways to clean water of pathogens and colloidal particles. Building a slow sand filter requires little beyond local materials. A good manual I found that explains the finer points of operation and construction is “Biosand Filter Construction Manual” from CAWST, Center for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, that can be downloaded as a pdf file at

https://sswm.info/sites/default/files/reference_attachments/CAWST%202009%20Biosand%20Filter%20Manual.pdf

 

Sand Filter for Home Drinking Water (may include a layer of charcoal); Source: MIT “How to Build Almost Anything,” student Emily Gorbaty at http://fab.cba.mit.edu/classes/863.12/people/egorbaty/a1.html

  

 

 

 

The Slow Sand Filter Principles; Source: “The Slow Sand Filter” undergraduate research presentation, Prof. Massoud Pirbazari, faculty supervisor, Univ. of Southern California

 

 

  Water Purification

Filter and boil drinking water from surface sources to kill bacteria and parasites.

  • Surface water from streams may be muddy so settling and/or filtration may be necessary.
  • A slow sand filter will clear the water and remove many pathogens, but further purification is recommended.
  • Boiling water is the surest and quickest way to kill bacteria or parasites. Since this uses precious fuel, it may not be possible for some poor people. Other means of purification are recommended if boiling is not feasible.
  • UV from sunlight will kill most bacteria and parasites in six to ten hours in clear plastic one to two liter soda or water bottles if the water is clear. Prefiltering is recommended. Laying bottles on a reflective surface will enhance purification. Larger bottles are not recommended because UV from sunlight is reduced by traveling through a greater depth of water. The larger the bottle, the longer it takes to purify.

    Purifying water with UV rays from sunlight; Source: UNICEF
  • A solar still uses condensation inside a container. Water evaporates and condenses on the top and sides of the container and is collected in a separate container. This can also be used for desalination of brackish water or as the ultimate purification method. See illustrations below.
A simple solar still; Appropedia “Improving Basin Solar Stills” is licensed to the public under the Creative Commons Share-alikeW License (CC-BY-SA)

Infant and childhood mortality can be greatly reduced and village life can be much improved when the people are armed with the knowledge of microscopic bacteria, parasites and worm eggs, and the knowledge of how to purify water and clean surfaces by washing with soap. Control of insects and recognition of their important role in spreading diseases must be a part of education and training for healthier lives. An understanding of the role of flies in spreading disease is vital.

*************************************************************************

SAVING AFRICA FROM LIES THAT KILL:

HOW MYTHS ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT AND OVERPOPULATION ARE DESTROYING THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES

My new book reveals the abuses of developing countries by international organizations, based on the overpopulation myth and false assumptions about genetic inferiority and environmental damage.  Learn how you can help to end these practices and bring these cultures into the twenty-first century.

New book to be published in November, 2018

Back cover:  In Saving Africa From Lies That Kill, Kay Kiser exposes the long-standing crimes committed against developing nations by the United Nations, World Bank, USAID and Planned Parenthood. Under their guise of “aid,” these organizations mire the underprivileged in isolation, poverty, sickness and ignorance.

In her book, Kiser argues:

    • Poverty, not overpopulation, causes environmental damage.  Higher standards of living and lower infant mortality can improve the environment and stabilize the population.

    • Developing nations need access to reliable electricity in order to end energy poverty. This will, in turn, provide clean water, develop transportation, and power hospitals, homes and industrial investment.

    • Africans aren’t lazy; they’re weakened from malaria, parasites and dysentery. They need insect and disease control for a healthy workforce.

    • The Green Revolution and modern agriculture can feed everyone and end deforestation. 

available in bookstores and online, in paperback or e-book in November. Preorder on Amazon now. Get Kindle e-book today!

 

New book to be released November; preorder now; get Kindle today.

SAVING AFRICA FROM LIES THAT KILL:

HOW MYTHS ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT AND OVERPOPULATION ARE DESTROYING THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES

My new book reveals the abuses of developing countries by international organizations, based on the overpopulation myth and false assumptions about genetic inferiority and environmental damage.  Learn how you can help to end these practices and bring these cultures into the twenty-first century.

New book to be published in November, 2018

Back cover:  In Saving Africa From Lies That Kill, Kay Kiser exposes the long-standing crimes committed against developing nations by the United Nations, World Bank, USAID and Planned Parenthood. Under their guise of “aid,” these organizations mire the underprivileged in isolation, poverty, sickness and ignorance.

In her book, Kiser argues:

    • Poverty, not overpopulation, causes environmental damage.  Higher standards of living and lower infant mortality can improve the environment and stabilize the population.

    • Developing nations need access to reliable electricity in order to end energy poverty. This will, in turn, provide clean water, develop transportation, and power hospitals, homes and industrial investment.

    • Africans aren’t lazy; they’re weakened from malaria, parasites and dysentery. They need insect and disease control for a healthy workforce.

    • The Green Revolution and modern agriculture can feed everyone and end deforestation. 

available in bookstores and online, in paperback or e-book in November. Preorder on Amazon now.

Malaria as an effective population control tool

Population Control by Insects, Parasites, and Disease

Thomas Malthus (1798), William Vogt (1948), Paul Ehrlich (1968), and Alexander King of the Club of Rome (1990) all observed that insects in poor countries keep the population low, lifespans short, and childhood mortality high. All of them saw this as a good thing that would save the environment from damage by supposed human overpopulation. Note that the myth of overpopulation has continued since the eighteenth century to the present day among  strong population control organizations such as Planned Parenthood, Marie Stopes, UNFPA, UNESCO, Population Council, Club of Rome, and until recently USAID.

Malaria and Other Insect-Borne Diseases as Effective Tools for Population Control

Most of the diseases of poor countries are either caused, carried, or vectored by insects such as mosquitos, flies, fleas, lice, and parasitic worms, mites, and flukes, as well as contaminated water. Malaria is one of the deadliest insect-borne disease. It is the second most deadly disease in the Africa and the developing world, just behind tuberculosis. Why is malaria worse than other insect-borne diseases such as yellow fever or dengue fever? Is it because more insects carry it than any other? No, it is because it produces incomplete immune response with two outcomes: horrible, quick death or chronic recurrent bouts with severe anemia, organ and tissue damage. Because of incomplete immune response, protection from a previous infection is temporary, making reinfection possible. The malaria parasite is most effective if it does not kill the host outright, but rather keeps the host alive but badly compromised. It is difficult to control because it goes through two types of hosts, one of which has an aquatic life cycle phase and one of which can carry it for life unless treated.

Other insect-borne diseases present similar problems with control and eradication. These diseases further erode the suitability of the people for work that could raise them from abject poverty to a higher standard of living. In addition to insect-borne diseases, contaminated water is a major source of infection and disease, especially dysentery, amoebic dysentery, diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, polio, and giardia, which kill many infants and children before their fifth birthday. From all of this, it is evident that medical facilities, hygiene education, proper waste disposal, clean water, and insect eradication are critical to reducing and treating diseases and maintaining a healthy, strong workforce.

We are all familiar with the mosquito as a vector and/or carrier of malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, and various encephalitis types. What is sometimes forgotten or overlooked is the huge contribution by flies that carry and spread major diseases. As a specific disease, tuberculosis (TB) is the top killer in these countries; the second is malaria; additionally, the many diarrheal diseases from contaminated water are the top killers of infants and children under five. Tuberculosis is often carried by flies from feces or sputum of infected people to infect healthy children. Flies can spread many other serious diseases. Worms can cause diseases and are prevalent in poor countries, including hookworm, pin worm, round worm, tape worm, whip worm, and liver fluke. For example, hookworms can be acquired through bare feet on infected soil. Pin worm eggs are so tiny they can be inhaled or ingested in dust.  From there most of these worms make their way to the gut where they sap the strength of the host while laying eggs that leave the body through the anus and drop to the ground to infect the next host. Using raw human waste to fertilize crops adds to this menace so hygiene such as proper toilets and clean water are critical as well as shoes to prevent worms.

Since malaria is a major insect-vectored[1] disease, it deserves a closer look. The transmission of malaria is far from simple, with several points where the cycle can be stopped. It is not communicable from person to person because part of its life cycle requires a mosquito vector. Mosquitos aren’t born infected. They must acquire the parasite from an infected human. No infected humans means no malaria infected mosquitos. It takes days to weeks for a mosquito that picked up the parasite from an infected person to transmit it to a healthy person. This is called the incubation period. After the incubation period, it can bite more than one human, but this is limited by the amount of blood it can consume. The lifespan of a mosquito is about the same as the incubation period, so time can be used to defeat it. Let’s look at the stages of its life cycle to identify key points when the cycle can be interrupted.

Life Cycle of Mosquito and Malaria Parasite
The Life Cycle of Malaria and the Mosquito

(points to stop the cycle are marked with an asterisk)

  1. An uninfected female Anopheles mosquito emerges from the surface of standing water. *(You can kill the mosquito by emptying standing water or spreading a thin film of oil on the water to kill larvae.)
  2. It then bites a symptomatic person infected by the malaria protozoan and acquires the malaria gametocyte stage from their blood. *(protect and treat symptomatic humans; kill mosquitos)
  3. Gametocytes move to the mosquito’s mid gut.
  4. In twleve days the gametocytes mature and sexually reproduce, forming the sporozoite stage. *(kill mosquitos during this time)
  5. Sporozoites move to the mosquito’s salivary glands.
  6. Mosquito bites an uninfected human and transfers sporozoites to their blood. *(Protect humans; kill mosquitos.)
  7. Sporozoites migrate to the liver and infect it.
  8. In ten days sporozoites sexually reproduce to form the merozoite stage.
  9. Merozoites re-enter the bloodstream and infect red blood cells.
  10. Red blood cells are killed as the merozoites use the hemoglobin to asexually reproduce forming the gametocyte stage.
  11. The red blood cell bursts releasing gametocytes and merozoites, which can form more gametocytes inside other red blood cells.
  12. Person suffers fever, shakes, pain and debilitating weakness. *(Protect symptomatic humans; give anti-malaria drugs as early as possible.)
  13. Gametocytes infect other tissues of the body causing damage to kidneys, liver, heart, brain, and other organs.
  14. If malaria species is Plasmodium falciparum (the most prevalent type), red blood cells become sticky, may clump, cause clots, and block arteries, causing stroke or heart attack.
  15. If the infected person dies, the cycle ends. If the infected person lives, only incomplete immunity is acquired so repeated infections are possible.
  16. Anti-malaria drugs can kill the infection and cure the disease if caught early before permanent damage occurs.
  17. Each bout with malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, destroys red blood cells equivalent to a pint of blood, leaving the person chronically anemic, weakened and possibly with permanent kidney or liver damage. Cerebral malaria can kill in as little as one day after symptoms appear.
  18. A newly hatched female Anopheles mosquito bites the infected person and acquires gametocytes. *(Protect symptomatic humans; kill mosquitos)
  19. The cycle repeats. See number 2 above.
  20. Meanwhile, using the blood ingested, the original mosquito mates and lays eggs on the surface of standing water. Anopheles mosquitos lay single eggs, not rafts like Aedes species. *(Cover or drain standing water; apply oil to water surface; kill mosquitos.)
  21. Malaria is not transferred to the eggs so that eggs, larvae, and emerging adults are free of infection. *(Cover or drain standing water; apply oil to water surface.)
  22. In forty-eight hours, the eggs hatch and sink to the bottom to feed but must come to lie on the surface to breathe. (Anopheles do not have siphons like Aedes species) *(Cover or drain standing water; apply oil to water surface.)
  23. Larvae eat microscopic organisms and may be eaten by predators such as frogs, fish, and the like.[2] *(Raise fish in standing water ponds or streams.)
  24. Larvae molt four times and pupate on the fourth molt.
  25. Pupae lie on the surface, don’t eat but respond to light, move, and can sink to the bottom to avoid predators.
  26. In two to four days, a new adult emerges from the surface of the water. *(Kill mosquitos.) Cycle repeats. See number 1 above.
  27. Life cycle of an adult mosquito is typically seven to ten days but may be as much as thirty days.

 

The Bad News
  1. Malaria infection does not result in complete immunity to malaria, so reinfection is possible.
  2. Malaria parasite is a protozoan called a Plasmodium, not a bacterium or virus so developing a vaccine, if possible, has been an elusive goal.
  3. Relapse of malaria from dormant Plasmodia within a victim can occur over months or years.
  4. Each bout destroys red blood cells equivalent to a pint of blood, resulting in severe anemia.
  5. Malaria can travel to many areas of the body and cause kidney or liver damage, heart attacks, or strokes from clots.
  6. Cerebral malaria can cause death in a matter of hours.

 

The Good News
  1. Mosquitos are born clean – they don’t pass on the disease through their eggs to offspring.
  2. Mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae must breathe air at the water surface and live in the water for five to fourteen days to adulthood. They may be eaten by fish, birds, amphibians, insect larvae, among other things. Water may drain or dry up. Cover water containers to prevent egg laying. Drain standing water every four days.
  3. Malaria is species specific. Human malaria is only acquired from other humans, not animals. Animal malaria species aren’t transferable to humans. One exception is human cases of Plasmodium knowlesi, which is a monkey malaria found in Southeast Asia.
  4. Adult mosquitos, on average, live only one to two weeks, but sometimes up to four weeks.
  5. Mosquitos acquire gametophyte stage from infected humans, which converts into sporozoite stage in five to ten days before infection of other humans is possible.
  6. Person-to-person transmission is not possible, but one sporozoite infected mosquito may infect more than one human at the same time.
  7. Mosquitos bite humans and pass sporozoites, which go to the liver to convert to merozoites in ten days.
  8. Merozoites infect red blood cells and produce multiple gametophytes in ten to thirty days.
  9. A second clean mosquito bites and picks up gametophytes. The cycle repeats.

 

Malaria Eradication and Prevention Plan

    • Spray interior walls of homes with DDT. This not only kills mosquitos but is a deterrent to mosquitos entering the area.
    • Close houses with screens over windows, doors, roof vents, floor gaps to prevent insect entry (preferably wire screens, but netting similar to bed nets can be used on windows, doors and roof vents, etc., but must be checked regularly for holes.)
    • Metal or tile roofs with covered roof vents are preferable to thatch, in which mosquitos can hide.
    • Use bed nets treated with insecticides.
    • Use DEET insect repellant when outdoors.
    • Cover or drain standing water at least every four days.
    • Protect infected people from mosquito bites.
  • Mass administration of anti-malaria drugs for an entire village at once with insect control can end the cycle. (No infected humans means no infected mosquitos.)
  • The aim is to eliminate infected human hosts, not the entire mosquito population, which is much more difficult or impossible.

[1] Vector means the disease/parasite must spend part of its life cycle developing inside the insect before being passed on to complete its lifecycle inside a human or animal.

[2] Larvae of dragonflies, Dobson flies and elephant mosquitoes (mosquito eaters), diving beetles (water tigers), and the water scavenger beetles are among insect predators that eat mosquito larvae. Dragonflies are predatory as both larvae in water and as adults. Dobson fly larvae in water are often called hellgrammites and are predatory. Mosquito eaters look like mosquitoes but are much larger than those that attack humans and animals. Most of them are harmless because the adults only feed on other insects, as well as plant nectar and similar materials.

References:

[1] Robert S. Desowitz, 1991, Malaria Capers, More Tales of Parasites and People, Research and Reality,

[2] E. J. L. Soulsby and William R. Harvey, “Disease Transmission by Arthropods,” Science 176, no. 4039 (1972): 1153–1155.

[3] See earlier blog DDT Needed Now in Underdeveloped Countries

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The book: Saving Africa from Lies that Kill: How Myths about the Environment and Overpopulation are Destroying Third World Countries will be published in October, 2018. Print and e-book will be available online and in bookstores.

My first book, Perverted Truth Exposed: How Progressive Philosophy has Corrupted Science was published in 2016. It is available in print and e-book, on line only, through World Net Daily store, Amazon, Books-A-Million and Barnes & Noble.  See the companion blog at www.realscienceblog.com  for related posts and pages.

 

Solving Africa’s Energy Poverty Problem, Part 5 Geothermal

Geothermal Power can help solve Africa’s energy poverty
The East African Rift Valley Geothermal Resources Source: Alan Hoffman at lapsedphysicist.org

Geothermal power generation is possible in broad seismically active regions of Africa such as the Rift Valley and near some volcanoes. There are 157 active volcanoes in Africa that may offer potential for geothermal energy generation (see map). Most of them are in East Africa along the Rift Valley, but some occur in North and West Africa. The Rift Valley has an estimated potential of 4,000 MW of energy, but less than 600 MW have been developed, largely in Kenya with 586 MW currently available. Ethiopia has a small 7.3 MW facility. Surface surveys and exploration are underway in several other countries. Much of the funding for these projects comes through the World Bank and Geothermal Risk Mitigation Facility (GRMF) fund, a multinational organization, which is administered by the African Union (AU).[1] GRMF has eleven-member countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi, Comoros Islands, Eritrea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti and Zambia.

For comparison, the “Geological Survey of India has identified 350 geothermal energy locations in the country. The most promising of these is in Puga valley of Ladakh. The estimated potential for geothermal energy in India is about 10,000 MW.”[2] None have been developed to generate electricity at this time. Surveying, exploring and evaluating potentials continues.

Source: India Energy Portal at http://www.indiaenergyportal.org/
Geothermal Electric Power Details

Wells are drilled into thermally active areas and hot water or steam is pumped out, often under their own pressure, to turn turbines connected to electrical generators before being condensed and returned through injection wells to replenish the reservoir. Water heated above the boiling point turns to steam as the pressure is relieved while being pumped to the surface. There are several types of plants depending on the temperature of the geothermal energy available.

  • For vapor dominated systems at the highest temperatures, 464 to 572°F (240 to 300°C), steam is forced directly from wells under its own power to turn turbines/generators.
  • For liquid dominated systems at temperatures, greater than 360°F (182°C), superheated water under pressure pushes toward the surface and, as pressure is reduced in transit, part of it boils and produces steam for turning turbines/generators.
  • For binary systems at temperatures in the range of 248º to 392ºF, (120º–200ºC), hot water pushes is pumped out of the wells, which then heats a lower boiling secondary fluid to produce “steam,” a.k.a. gas, to turn turbines/generators.

In all of these cases the water is condensed and returned through an injection well although some of it may be recycled in binary systems for further heat extraction. The secondary fluid of binary systems, usually a lower boiling hydrocarbon, is completely condensed and recycled in a closed-loop system (see diagrams below).[4]

Figure 13: Schematic diagram of a typical steam or hot water to steam geothermal power plant [5]
Schematic diagram of a binary cycle geothermal power plant

By 2020 Kenya hopes to be the first sub-Saharan African nation to reach “universal access” to electricity with 95 percent of homes having access to electricity, an increase from 2016 when 55 percent of homes had access. Over 60 percent of Kenya’s electrical power is provided by hydroelectric and geothermal power plants. Kenya plans to increase geothermal power output ten-fold to 5,000 MW by 2030, which is 26 percent of its total geothermal capacity.

[1] Waruru, Maina, “More African Countries Embrace Geothermal Power, Receive $37M in Funding,” Renewable Energy World magazine, June 23, 2016, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/articles/2016/06/more-african-countries-embrace-geothermal-power-receive-37m-in-funding.html.

[2] India Energy Portal at http://www.indiaenergyportal.org/

[3] India Energy Portal at http://www.indiaenergyportal.org/

[4] India Energy Portal at http://www.indiaenergyportal.org/subthemes_link.php?text=geothermal&themeid=1 Original source is World Energy Council, 2001 Survey of World Energy Resources at https://www.worldenergy.org/publications/2001/world-energy-resources-2001.

[5] World Energy Council, 2001 Survey of World Energy Resources at https://www.worldenergy.org/publications/2001/world-energy-resources-2001/ Original Source: Geothermal Energy, 1998, University of Utah).

Solving Africa’s Energy Poverty – Part 4 Hydroelectric

Hydroelectric Power for a bright future
Hydroelectric dam

Hydroelectric power can provide most of present and future needs, but it will take time and investment to build dams, plants, and distribution lines so fossil fuel power is needed until that day. Africa has abundant rivers that could supply most or all of their electrical needs for the foreseeable future through dams, waterfalls, and pumped storage.

“Hydropower produces more than three-quarters of the world’s renewable energy output each year. And its carbon emissions—over the entire lifecycle of construction, operation and decommissioning—are often far lower than those from all other renewable sources, including wind and solar. Across Africa, hydropower is responsible for 84 per cent of all non-fossil fuel energy use. But in a continent rich in lakes and rivers, the opportunities for expanding hydropower are huge.”

78 percent = Proportion of global renewable energy generation from hydropower in 2012

7.5 percent = Proportion of African energy use from non-fossil fuels in 2013

84 percent = Proportion of African non-fossil fuel energy use from hydropower in 2013[1]

Africa is estimated to have 4 million gigawatts-hours per year (GWh/yr) or 4 billion megawatts-hours per year (MWh/yr) total hydroelectric generating capacity, or about 12 percent of the world’s hydropower potential, with a technically feasible output of about 1,800 terawatts-hours per year (TWh/yr) or 1.8 trillion MWh/yr. [2] Yet Africa produces only about 3 percent of the global hydropower and exploits less than 10 percent of its technical potential.[3]

Some notable systems have been built in Africa and some are under construction or planned. The largest in Africa is the Aswan, capacity 2,100 MW, followed by the Cohora Bassa in Mozambique at 2,075 MW capacity. The soon-to-be-completed Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the upper Nile will have a capacity of 6,000 MW. It will triple the electrical output of the country and be capable of selling power to surrounding countries and/or multinational grids.

An example of a waterfall being used for power is Victoria Falls, Zambezi River, on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe, which has three power plants with a total capacity of 108 MW. A proposed hydroelectric dam below the falls on the Zambezi River at Batoka Gorge will have a capacity of 1,600 MW.

For comparison, India has become the 7th largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world. India’s installed utility-scale hydroelectric capacity is 44,594 MW, from major power plants plus many smaller plants. Its potential is over 155,000 MW from large and small plants and 94,000 MW pumped storage potential, with 4800 MW installed to date. Its many waterfalls are used as well as hydroelectric dams and pumped storage reservoirs.  The hydro-electric power plants at Darjeeling and Shivanasamudram were established in 1898 and 1902, respectively. They were among the first in Asia. India has been a dominant player in global hydroelectric power development. India also builds hydroelectric plants in other countries and may be a resource for countries in Africa and similar energy poor regions.

Hydroelectric Power Details

Hydroelectric plants are classified as Large if their capacity is over 500 MW, Medium if over 10 MW, and Small: Mini (10 MW), Micro (100 kW), or Pico (5 kW). Many more Small facilities are and can be built with much lower capital investment up front. Smaller hydroelectric facilities can be scaled to more closely meet local needs in isolated areas, and several of these can be connected to a distribution grid to provide electricity to a wider area.

Hydroelectric power plants use the force of falling water to turn turbines attached to generators, so that heating water for steam and subsequent cooling is not needed. Hydroelectric dams also provide flood control and create reservoirs to provide a reliable source of clean water, irrigation water, aquaculture, fishing and manufacturing industries, and much needed water transportation. Reservoirs resupply the water table by lateral seepage.

Pumped storage in conjunction with hydroelectric dams can help to reliably supply needs in seasons when water flow is reduced or demand peaks. The way it works is that water is pumped up to fill a mountaintop reservoir when demand is below capacity, and the stored water is used when demand is high. The efficiency of many of these systems is above 70 percent.

A good example in my personal experience is Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Reservoir near Chattanooga, Tennessee. It is located above Nickajack Lake Reservoir on the Tennessee River. Water is pumped from the reservoir at the base of the mountain up to the mountain top reservoir during low demand periods and released to generate additional power for the TVA system of hydroelectric dams in peak demand periods. At present there are more than three dozen pumped storage facilities in nineteen countries with 1,000 MW capacity or greater and many more with lower output capacities.

Racoon Mountain Pumped Storage hydroelectric generation[4]

Waterfalls can provide power without the need to build a dam. Part of the natural gravity-fed flow is channeled through turbine generators to supply power. One long-standing example is at Niagara Falls, straddling the US and Canadian border. This area has had a succession of hydroelectric power plants in both countries as both demand and capacities have increased. Hydroelectric power generation in this area has remained uninterrupted since local service began in 1882 in the US and 1892 in Canada. The famous Adams Power Plant, built by Westinghouse with Tesla designed turbines, opened in 1895 to supply power to New York counties nearby. Currently operating plants include a pumped storage facility, Lewiston Pump-Generation Plant, in conjunction with the Robert Moses Power Station in the US.

Smaller hydroelectric facilities can use run-of-the-river systems. In this system, no dam is needed if there is a gradient. Some of the water is diverted from the river using a sloping or vertical channel through turbines to generate electricity and then is returned to the river downstream. As a rule, the higher the drop, the greater generating capacity, but Micro and Pico plants can run on as little as a one-meter drop to supply local power or to connect to a larger network.

Even in relatively arid areas, hydroelectric power can provide most of the electrical power in rainy seasons and can be backed up with fossil fuel thermal power plants to fill in any gaps during dry seasons. As an added bonus, in dry seasons the reservoirs behind hydroelectric dams can provide needed water for agriculture and homes, especially if power generation is switched to backup power to conserve water in the reservoir. The combination of hydropower and thermal power generation can provide reliable power throughout the year.

[1] Source: International Energy Agency/BP.

[2] Abbreviations: GWh/year = Gigawatt-hours/year or billion watt-hours/year; MWh/year = Megawatt-hours/year or million watt-hours/year; TWh/year = Terawatt-hours/year or trillion watt-hours/year. Tera- is 1000x Giga-, which is 1000x Mega-.

[3] Appleyard, David, “Africa’s Hydropower Future,” Hydroworld.com, January 1, 2014, http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/print/volume-22/issue-1/regional-profile/africa-s-hydropower-future.html.

[4] Tennessee Valley Authority

Solving Africa’s Energy Poverty – Part 3 Solar Power

Why SOLAR Power is a poor choice for developing countries

The main practical problem with solar panels is that they produce power intermittently and variably depending on the latitude, the time of day, the season, and weather events such as clouds, rain, and windblown dust that block sunlight. Another factor that affects output of solar panels is heat, which further reduces output and lifetime. That is why most rooftop solar panels are mounted on supports above the roof surface. In hotter climates, it may be necessary to provide cooling water to maintain efficiency, all of which reduces photovoltaic efficacy. They do not provide power at night and so there must be a reliable backup power source such as banks of batteries. Present battery technology is not feasible for this purpose except for single home systems, so thermal and hydroelectric energy must be used.

Solar panels are inefficient by their nature. Single junction panels are based on high-tech silicon wafers and the more efficient multi junction types require silicon wafers layered with exotic metals such as gallium, indium, phosphorus, gallium arsenide, and germanium to broaden their power spectrum and enhance output. The sun provides roughly 1 kW power per square meter at vertical and solar panels or mirrors provide only a fraction of that. Typical efficiency of solar photovoltaic cells is from typically 15 percent up to a possible 30 percent.

Peak output occurs only when the panel is pointed directly at the sun so computer-driven tracking mechanisms would be needed to maintain peak power throughout each day. At higher latitudes, the sun is never directly overhead, so the sun would be at an angle from the vertical and power would be reduced by the greater depth of the atmosphere even with compensating angled support. This varies with season by up to 23.5 degrees above and below the equatorial plane because of the tilt of the earth’s axis. So in winter, the angle could be 47 degrees or more from vertical, depending on the latitude. Even near the equator, only near the equinox will the sun be directly overhead at noon and could be as much as 23.5 from the vertical. Many solar arrays use fixed panels so that they operate outside peak performance most of the time.

All of these factors will reduce average output considerably. Maintenance teams are needed to maintain the tracking mechanisms and water cooling circulation systems, as well as for regular cleaning of the panels.

The next hurdle is the lifetime of the solar panel. Efficiency decreases with age and typical solar panels will last only twenty years with typically 1 percent loss in efficiency per year. Then you have to factor in how much energy is expended in manufacturing, installing, and maintaining units. This can be a significant percentage of the typical output over time. It will usually take about a year to recoup the energy balance. With short lifetimes, high-tech materials, low efficiency, intermittency, and maintenance requirements, it is clear that solar power through photovoltaic panels is totally unsustainable. Never mind that the power source, the sun, provides renewable power, the panel itself makes this method totally unsustainable.

Ivanpah mirror array in California, Washington Times

Solar power using mirrors is a bit more reliable since it eliminates exotic materials and high-tech manufacturing. However, it has most of the same limitations as Photovoltaic (PV) solar panels. These limitations include no night power production as well as weather, and latitude reductions in efficiency. Some now use molten salt as a heat reservoir to supply supplemental power at night. Maintenance teams are needed to keep the mirrors free from dust. A major problem with mirror systems is that many mirrors must surround and be aimed at a central steam generator to produce the kind of heat needed to produce the steam for a turbine. The heat from these systems can kill birds in flight, and the glare can blind airline pilots.

Both types of solar arrays require a large expanse of land to produce a reasonable amount of power. This necessarily disrupts the environment. Rooftops of warehouses, where available, can be used for PV panels, but the mirror arrays cannot because they must be aimed at a central tower containing a generator at the top. Fires on rooftop PV arrays are all too common from breakthrough shorts and wiring issues.

Solar Panel on thatched roof hut

From this, it seems all too obvious that solar power is inadequate even for home use in poor countries and can only be a temporary “Band-Aid” to assuage the consciences for feel-good well-heeled environmentalists in Western countries. Climate agreements envision solar panels on huts, not reliable, long term power as provided by fossil fuel, hydroelectric, geothermal or nuclear power grids. International organizations invest only in wind and solar while discouraging or prohibiting these more reliable power sources that could support infrastructure development, industrial investment, hospitals, schools, provide jobs that can raise the economy and improve health and longevity.